Assisted Reproductive Technology (ART) refers to several variations in treatment tailored to patients' unique conditions. These procedures are usually paired with more conventional therapies, such as fertility drugs, to increase success rates. Almost one out of every three cycles of ART results in the birth of a baby.
The main ART techniques :
- Intrauterine Insemination (IUI) : This procedure is combined with hormone treatments to boost egg production can help couples with low sperm count, unexplained infertility, or cervical mucus problems. Semen is collected, and then delivered via a catheter inserted through the women's vagina and cervix to her uterus.
- In vitro fertilization (IVF) : This is one of the most commonly used procedures. Your eggs are combined with your partner's sperm in a dish in a laboratory. Once fertilization has occurred, the resulting embryos develop for 3 to 5 days before being placed in your uterus.
- Intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI) : One of your partner's sperm is placed inside your egg with a microscopic needle, rather than many sperm positioned close to the outside of the egg, as in IVF, in a dish in a lab. Once fertilization occurs, the resulting embryo is placed in your uterus.
- Preimplantation genetic diagnosis (PGD) : This procedure enables physicians to identify genetic diseases in the embryo, prior to implantation, before the pregnancy is established. PGD was developed for patients who were at risk of having children with serious genetic disorders, such as hemophilia, which often discouraged them having their own biological children.
- Assisted Hatching : Before an embryo can attach to the wall of the womb, it has to break out or ‘hatch’ from its outer layer called the zona pellucida. It has been suggested that making a hole in or thinning this outer layer may help embryos to ‘hatch’, increasing the chances of the woman becoming pregnant in some cases.
- Donar Egg : If you're unable to conceive using your own eggs, an egg donated by another woman is mixed with your partner's sperm and the resulting embryo is implanted in your uterus. This procedure also can be done with a donated sperm.
- Surrogacy or use of a gestational carrier: Another woman carries your embryo, or a donor embryo, to term and gives the baby to you after birth.