10 Frequently Asked Questions on Male Infertility

Male infertility is real. An estimated 20 – 30 percent of men may not have the ability to father their offspring with their own genetic material. There exist diverse reproductive factors – which are both physiological as well as psychological, among men, which act as impediments barring them to emerge as parents by following the natural process of reproduction. Male infertility, hence, is quite common and in no way is simply restricted to women. In this article we’ll share ten questions (along with answers) our male patients keep asking our consultants during their reproductive counselling sessions.

  • What is Male Infertility?

The inability of a male to fertilize a fertile female and cause pregnancy is referred as male infertility. In humans it accounts for 40-50% of all infertility cases and population wise it affects 7% of all men.

  • How Is Male Infertility Diagnosed?

Semen analysis is the most common test we prescribe for diagnosing male infertility. Through this test, many attributes of the sperm and semen (the fluid containing sperm) can be measured. To be specific, the test measures the sperm concentration (the number of sperms present in 1 mm of semen), the sperm’s morphology (the percentage of sperms in normal shape), its motility (the percentage of sperms that are moving), and the volume of fluid.

  • What Is Normal Sperm Count?

According to WHO 5th manual, ideal sperm concentration should be 15 million/ml. Patient having sperm concentration less than this range will be called oligozoospermia. There are two types of sperm, motile and immotile. According to WHO 5th manual, normal semen sample have motile sperm either 32% progressive motile sperm or 40% progressive and nonprogressive motile sperm. (more…)

Genome Raipur Centre Creates Miracle through IVF to a Couple with Multiple History of Failures

This is the story of Upma Dubey, a 37 year old lady who had undergone IVF at other prominent infertility clinics for 4 times resulting in failure on every attempt. Due to repeated loss, the couple was in a state of high anxiety. This affected Upma’s sleep since she realized that her husband Pawan was getting depressed. They were caught between the prevailing circumstance and their desperate desire of becoming parents.

While they were at this miserable condition, GENOME showed them a ray of hope. After receiving an enquiry from them, we immediately fixed an appointment for medical counselling and examination at our centre at Raipur.

On Upma’s visit, she informed about her hysterolaparoscopy which she has undergone on 20th December 2016. After going through her medical history and examining her, our reproductive medicine specialists came to know that Upma had IVF failures due to low AMH which resulted in unsuccessful implantation.

On further diagnosis through hysteroscopy (a process to examine the cervix and the inside of uterus), our Infertility Specialists also deducted that she had vesicular type lesion on the left lateral wall of her uterus.

What is low AMH?

AMH or Anti-Mullerian Hormone is released by the granulosa cells present in ovarian follicles. Initially it is produced in primary follicles and this stage is termed as primordial follicle. In this stage, the follicles are so microscopic that they cannot even be noticed by ultrasound.  (more…)

7 Ways to Swipe off the Odds While Planning Pregnancy

No matter how long you have been trying not to get pregnant, there comes a time in every couple’s life when the desire of completing the family arises. Since most of the couples are using the techniques of preventing a pregnancy, many of them think that simply removing all such preventive measures will help them conceive a baby. However, the truth is something else. We often encounter patients who are surprised and shocked for not being able to conceive even after having unprotected intercourse for several years.

To enhance your chances of getting pregnant, we have mentioned some effective ‘How to Get Pregnant’ strategies that can help you if you adopt.

  1. STOP all Unhealthy Habits

Needless to say, couples planning conception needs to stay healthy. Hence, you should stop all unhealthy habits and addictions to an immediate effect. Make sure to follow a zero alcohol and no smoking lifestyle. Also steer clear of medicinal drugs that can potentially harm your fertility. Caffeine has a tendency to lower fertility; therefore, it is advised to avoid caffeine-rich foods such as tea, coffee, chocolates and soda. Rigorous exercise can restrain your fertility. Thus, if you are doing strenuous exercises regularly, you need to relax and slow down a bit.

REMEMBER, fertility usually does not favour women who are underweight.

  1. Monitor your Meals

MEN! Zinc is like a fuel to fertility because it boosts the production of testosterone and sperm. Thus, you are highly recommended to consume zinc enriched foods such as eggs, seafood, chicken, and whole grain products. Being a good source of vitamin D and calcium, milk is also beneficial for fertility. (more…)

Secondary Infertility: Causes & Treatments

While diagnosing various infertility cases, doctors often find couples with secondary infertility as emotionally very difficult to handle. Such couples are reluctant to reach out to for support since people in their social circles often misinterpret their conditions as – they should be happy because they are already blessed with a child and so on.

Here’s a fictional conversation between Mr. Sperm and The Wise Egg where Ova (The Wise Egg) discloses the causes, emotional states and treatment options associated with secondary infertility.

Mr. Sperm:

“Hi Ova, I’m trying to create a second child for the past few years but without success. Is anything wrong with me?”

The Wise Egg:

“Well, I can’t be sure though, but a medical examination would be necessary. However, I can say that since you have already fathered a child, so facing difficulty for the next time might be due to a condition called ‘secondary infertility’.  There’s nothing to be scared of. There’s some biology involved. Let me explain. Secondary infertility occurs when a couple is unable to conceive after having one child. Although primary fertility issues get most of the attention, most of the couples are found to experience secondary fertility problems.”

Mr. Sperm:

“Ah! Is that so? I’m curious to learn more. Tell me what causes such problems, and how can they be treated?”

The Wise Egg:

“There are certain factors responsible for causing primary fertility problems which can also contribute to triggering secondary fertility issues. Check these out – (more…)

Understanding PCOD and How it Poses Threat to Fertility in Women

Motherhood completes every woman. However, not every woman is blessed with motherhood. The dark clouds of infertility can steal away happiness from their lives making life miserable and literally, unbearable. Infertility doesn’t occur in a single day. It creeps in slowly. Women can suffer from fertility related issues from a very early age which if left undetected and untreated can lead to infertility during their adult age. One such, slow ‘fertility killer’ is Polycystic Ovary Disease, commonly referred to as PCOD/ PCOS.

What Causes PCOD?

During menstrual cycle, even a little higher than normal levels of androgen in women can restrict the ovaries from releasing eggs. This can cause additional hair growth and acne which are the two most common physical signs of PCOD. Insulin is the hormone that regulates the process of converting food into energy. High levels of insulin can also result into polycystic ovary disease in females.

Is PCOD Genetic?

Although the actual cause of PCOD is yet to be known but according to some medical evidences there is a definite genetic connection to this disorder. Not all women having ‘polycystic appearing ovaries’ will have PCOD.

What ‘Lifestyle-Changes’ Can Prevent PCOD?

  • Stay away from processed and refined food
  • Drink at least 2-3 litres of purified water daily
  • Always follow a combination diet plan by including lean protein and complex carbohydrates in your meals
  • Eat every 3 to 4 hours
  • Avoid taking refined sugar
  • Avoid alcohol consumptions

Are PCOD and AMH Correlated? – Notes From The Scientific Community

AMH expanded as anti-mullerian hormone is a sensitive producer of ovarian reserve. The hormone gets released by the cells across the follicles present in the ovary. AMH is said to decrease with age and may be considered as the significant reason behind the aging of ovaries. According to researches, it has been found that AMH level starts decreasing earlier in life even before other markers of ovarian aging such as FSH or Follicle Stimulating Hormone starts to decrease. (more…)

Take Off the Shame Out Of the Stain – Menstrual Hygiene Matters

“Education about menstruation changes everything”

We all are aware of menstruation- a biological process of female reproductive cycle. However, there’re societies that still considers it as a social taboo and a secretive topic that shouldn’t be discussed openly.

Lack of knowledge about menstrual health creates this kind of mind-set and risks female hygiene increasing chances of vaginal infections. To spread the awareness and bring the change, menstrual hygiene day is observed every year on May 28. This year too saw widespread participation and awareness campaigns all over the globe, promoting the necessity of awareness among women and the society at large on ‘menstruation’, its biological and social significance.

Genome The Fertility Centre supports the cause of raising awareness among the masses on the importance of menstrual health and hygiene. Below, we have listed few reasons depicting the importance of menstrual hygiene.

  • Education on menstruation increases self-esteem, raises wages and raises grades
  • Knowledge about menstruation acts as woman empowerment which helps them to take care of themselves in various ways. A girl who knows that her period is about to come every month gives her a sense of responsibility to take care of her body unlike a girl who is completely unaware of it


10 Super Foods to Boost Fertility in Women Undergoing IVF

A healthy diet is always essential for a woman since God has chosen her to bear and nurture the most precious life inside her- ‘A Child’. According to a research on fertility diet by Harvard Medical School, intake of certain foods can improve ovulation without medical interference. Get to know about the best diet changes that will help to boost fertility while you’re undergoing IVF.

According to a scientific study published in the journal ‘Human Reproduction’, females undergoing In-Vitro Fertilization (IVF) if found vitamin D deficient may have lesser chances of getting pregnant. Thus, having a vitamin enriched diet plan makes your immune system and hormones function properly thereby increasing your chances of getting successful pregnancy through IVF.

1. Drink Carrot Juice

Although fish and eggs have Vitamin D in them but carrot is a healthier option. Being an excellent source of pro-vitamin A, vitamins – D, C, K, E, B1 and B6, carrot juice can help your body get the right nutrients and enzymes required for fertility. Carrots help boost immunity thereby making your body strong enough to resist diseases. It helps improve the muscle, skin and flesh of the unborn during pregnancy. Not just this, carrots are found excellent in controlling blood sugar levels. Thus consuming it can reduce the chances of diabetes which is essential for a fertile and healthy life. Carrots have also been attributed for decreasing the chances of jaundice in the developing foetus.

2. Believe in Broccoli

Broccoli can be eaten either raw or steamed. This excellent vegetable contains compounds that help your body get rid of excess estrogen for a healthy pregnancy. High in Vitamin C this wonder veggie aids the ovaries in releasing healthy eggs and hence ensure proper ovulation. Broccoli also contains the highest amount of calcium that helps in maintaining the alkalinity of the reproductive tract, ensuring smoother passage for the sperms.

3. Consume Complex Carbs

Studies have found that a higher level of insulin obstructs ovulation. Bad carbs such as cakes, white rice, cookies and wheat flour get digested quickly into blood sugar. In order to maintain the blood sugar level, pancreas secretes insulin into the bloodstream. On the contrary, good carbs present in fruits, fibre, beans, green vegetables and whole grains get digested gradually and hence have a slower effect on blood sugar and insulin.

4. Say ‘NO’ to Trans Fats & ‘YES’ to Unsaturated Fats

As already discussed, high insulin levels leads to metabolic disturbances which affect ovulation. Trans-fats primarily found in foods like snacks, junk foods and animal products tends to restrict insulin in moving glucose from blood to cells. In order to balance this condition, pancreas keeps on pumping more insulin which in turn raises the level of insulin in the body. So cut down trans-fats from your diet and intake unsaturated fats, found mostly in – olive oil, salmon, almonds, peanut butter and avocados. (more…)

Learn to Predict Ovulation – Your most Fertile Days for Pregnancy

Fertility is mankind’s blessing to continue nature’s process of breeding, nurturing and raising new lives. However, if it is such that infertility has made your life lonely, we are glad to inform you that successful childbirth is just a step away! Through Assisted Reproductive Technology procedures such as IVF, IUI, ICSI, surrogacy and much more, our reproductive medicine specialists are enhancing the chances of successful childbirth and has already delivered hope and possibilities to over 20,000+ happy couples over the last 11 years.

Read on to know what our Infertility Specialists have to say about ovulation (the most fertile days for pregnancy) and the process of predicting its occurrence.


Ovulation is a process when the egg released by your ovary gets fertilized by a sperm followed by uterine implantation and the good news is that, you are pregnant!


You are potentially considered fertile at the day of ovulation and five days before ovulation. This generally takes place 12 to 16 days before your menstrual period i.e. somewhere between the 10th and 17th day.

However, pregnancy or conception is likely to happen if you plan intercourse with your partner among these five days before ovulation and 24 hours after ovulation. This is simply because the lifespan of sperm inside a woman’s body is 5 days while an ovum stays active only for 12-24 hours.

Although there’s no accurate way of predicting the time of ovulation but you can estimate its occurrence and plan accordingly to boost your chances of getting pregnant.


If your menstrual cycle is regular every month, you can try out the calendar method. To predict your day of ovulation, you need to count 14 days preceding your next expected period.

Since your fertile window covers the day of your ovulation along with the five days preceding it, you need to plan intercourse in this period. For example, if day 1 is the first day of your menstruation and day 28 is the when you expect your next period, your fertility window will include days 10 to 15.

Although not accurate but this is the easiest method to predict your fertile days and plan pregnancy with respect to it. Thus, it’s easy, safe, and is worth a try especially for couples who are not in a hurry to conceive. (more…)

GENOME’s CME on ‘Fertility Preservation in Cancer Patients’

Reproduction is the art of nature in which life is the new colour.

No one wants to get deprived of such a beautiful phase of life.

Cancer or to be more specific cancer treatments can affect the delicate process of reproduction and hence reduce the chances of successful childbirth. While there are different types of cancer treatments, their effects are variable. Here are some common infertility problems seen among men and women who have got a medical history with cancer.

  • Chemotherapy drugs can cause egg damage thereby risking fertility in females
  • Cancer patients should avoid getting pregnant during the treatment tenure of cancer as it can disturb foetus development and cause birth defects
  • In males, cancer can cause damage to endocrine glands thereby reducing the body’s ability to make new sperms, decrease or even stop the production of semen

According to The National Cancer Registry, the annual number of patients who develop cancer in India is set to rise from about 9.79 lakh in 2010 to 11.4 lakh in 2020. And a staggering 30-75% males and 40-80% females will possibly face infertility as a result of their chemotherapy, radiation and surgery.

Amidst all such risks and negative impacts of cancer, medical researchers have come up with new hopes on preserving fertility in cancer patients.

While the focus is not only extending life but also improving the quality of life in cancer patients, Genome conducted a CME on the topic ‘Fertility Preservation in Cancer Patients‘ at Saroj Gupta Cancer Centre & Research Institute in Thakurpukur, Kolkata on 20th April 2017.

The team from GENOME including Dr. Kausiki Ray (MBBS DGO DNB Fellowship in Reproductive Endocrinology & Infertility, Israel), Dr. Indranil Saha (MBBS MD Obs & Gyn MRCOG, UK) and Ms. Atreyee Chatterjee (MSc, Chief Embryologist, Genome The Fertility Centre) joined our CME. Dr. Bimal Chakraborty and Dr. N.R. Mondal were the chairpersons of the CME. Dr. Arnab Gupta the Director of Saroj Gupta Cancer Centre & Research Institute was among the dignitaries present.  (more…)

Depression & Infertility- Symbiotic Sisters Obstructing Pregnancy

Infertility & depression are symbiotic and often go together. We have come across different cases of depression during pregnancy & post pregnancy which are very more common amongst women with a history of infertility treatment. However, many of you may not know that women who experience depression can also be the prey of infertility.

It is absolutely natural to feel sad or depressed while dealing with infertility. Any woman facing it might hit with the blues when her period comes, when her fertility test shows a negative report, when fertility treatments fail or when her friends have their second child. Women who are unable to bear child often feel incomplete from inside and the pressure from their family and society, lead to acute depression & isolation.

In our country where family status especially childbearing is considered overly important and valuable to stabilize the family and increases marital satisfaction which otherwise results in marital problems such as divorce or even second marriage, making the situation worst for women with infertile issues.

Depression Causes Infertility

Though, it is yet to be proved that depression is directly associated with infertility, but some researchers from Central Asia & USA have found a correlation between depression and increased rate of infertility. Depression interferes with the process of conception. During this period, you should try to stay relaxed, happy and tension free. Depression affects the functioning of the hypothalamus, a gland in the brain that regulates your feelings or emotions & appetite, as well as the hormones that dictate your ovaries to release eggs. If you’re depressed, you may ovulate later in your cycle or not at all. Therefore, if you’re having sexual intercourse around the 14th day, thinking that you’re about to ovulate, you may miss your opportunity to conceive. (more…)